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北京大学2000年博士生入学考试试题

Part one :structure & written expression !$h%$se  
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Direction: In each question decide which of the four choices given wil most suitable complete the sentences if iinserted at the place marked .Put the letter of your choice in the ANSWER SHEET.(25%) &nn!{S^  
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1.Thomas Wolfe portrayed so that you came to know their yearnings ,their impulses ,and their warts----this was effective     . YkPz ~;  
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[A]motivation   [B]point of view   [C]characterizeation   [D]background $Z 10Zf=  
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2.The appeal to the senses known as     is especially common in poetry. ]Ke|wRQD  
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[A]imaginative   [B]imaginable   [C]ingenious       [D]imagery v Xio1hu  
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3.If you,ve got a complaint ,the best things is to see the person concerned and   with him. doc5;?6   
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[A]tell it       [B]have it out     [C]say it     [D]have it known V2w[0^ L  
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4.There have been several attempts to introduce gayer colours and styles in men,s clothing ,but none of them     . ThWZ>hyJ  
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[A]has caught on   [B]has caught him out   [C]has caught up   [D]take roots qa^x4xZM  
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5.The retired engineer plunked down $50,000 in cash for a mid-size Mercedes as a present for his wife-a purchase _____ with money made in the stock market the week before. 1:Y DN.*  
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[A]paid off   [B]paid through   [C]paid out   [D]paid for /UyW&]nK  
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6.He has courage all right , but in matters requiring judgment ,he has often been found sadly _____ . AaTtY d  
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[A]lack it   [B]absent   [C]in need of it   [D]wanting (!X:[Ah*$  
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7.Danis Hayes raised the essential paradox and asked how people could have fought so hard ageinst environmental degradation _____ themselves now on the verge of losing the war . yvDzxu  
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[A]only found   [B]finding only   [C]only to find   [D]have only found ;o^m"I\y  
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8.The once separate issue of environment and development are now _____ linked . =:"@YD^a4  
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[A]intangible   [B]indispensable   [C]inextricably   [D]incredibly -IX;r1UD  
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9.The need to see that justice is done _____ every decision made in the courts . e:7aVOm  
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[A]implants into [B]imposes on [C]impinges upon [D]imprecates upon GtGToI  
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10.Two thirds of the US basketball players are black ,and the number would be greater _____ the continuing practice of picking white bench warmers for the sake of balance . x~{ m%)I  
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[A]was it not because of         [B]had it not been for [e^i".  
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[C]were it not for             [C]would it not have been for uPo>?hpq+  
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11.No one would have time to read or listen to an account of everything _____ going on in the world . X*Q7Yu  
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[A]it is     [B]there is       [C]as is     [D]what is >=Rb:#UM  
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12.If there is the need to compete in a crowd ,to battle _____ the edge the surest strategy is to develop the unexpected. %vThbP#mR|  
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[A]on         [B]for         [C]against       [D]with &WRoNc  
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13.Just as there are occupations that require college or even higher degrees,_____ occupations for which technical training is necessary. e| l?NXRX  
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[A]so too there are         [B]so also there are 02+^rqIx5  
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[C]so there are too         [D]so too are there AP~!YwLW  
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14.It is a myth that the law permits the Food and Drug A dministration to ignore requirements for _____ drugs while brand – name drugs still must meet these rigid tests . o. _^  
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[A]specific       [B]generic       [C]intricate   [D]acrid DxD0iJ=W  
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15.The very biggest and most murderous wars during the industrial age were intra – industrial - wars that _____ Second Wave nations like Germany and Britain against one another. Umd!j,  
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[A]pitted     [B]drove     [C]kept     [D]embarked ?t"PawBWE  
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16.The private life of having each individual make his or her own choice of beliefs and interest _____ without the overarching pubic world of the state ,which sustains a structure _____ of law appropriate to a self – determining association . INT2i8oU  
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[A]is not possible           [B]would not be possible 4~/6d9f  
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[C]will not be possible       [D]cannot be possible 2n=;"33%a  
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17.from Christianity and the barbarian kingdoms of the west emerged the medieval version of politics _____ in turn evolved the politics of our modern world. gdT_kb5HL8  
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[A]of which   [B]from which   [C]on which   [D]by which y{sA["   
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18.The Portuguese give a great deal of credit to one man for having promoted sea travel ,that man _____ Prince Henry the navigator ,who lived in the 15th century. 2uTa}{/%  
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[A]was       [B]was called     [C]calling   [D]being 2I<T<hFW]  
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19.Grant was one of a body of men who were self – reliant _____ ,who cared hardly anything for the past but had a sharp eye for the future . 1sJN^BvuG  
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[A]on themselves         [B]on not making a fault a*hThr+$M  
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[C]to a fault           [D]to remain ahead ss<'g@R  
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20.Huntington and many of its competitors are working to make remedial instruction a commodity as _____ and accessible as frozen yogurt . (ZK >WoV  
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[A]ubiquitous     [B]rational     [C]necessary   [D]credible Anv8)J!9u  
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21.The scheme for rebuilding the city center _____ ,owing to the refusal of the refusal of a Council to sanction the expenditure of the money it would have required. 5m42Bqy"  
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[A]fell down   [B]fell off   [C]fell out   [D]fell flat y7OG[L/  
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22.If they think they are going to win over us by obstinately _____ and refusing to make the slightest concession, they are mistaken. NO^t/(Z  
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[A]holding out   [B]bolding to   [C]holding over   [D]holding up 0)5Sx /5'  
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23.The possibility that the explosion was caused by sabotage cannot be _____ . U _'q-*W  
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[A]broken out     [B]cancelled out   [C]ruled out   [D]wiped out #\BI-z t  
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24.The ex – president had been _____ in the country to refresh his mind before he passed away. HDyZzjgG  
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[A]give to walking           [B]given a walk [9om"'  
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[C]given for a walk         [D]giving a walk T zYg H  
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25.He did not relish appealing amongst his friends and _____ of their criticism or censure . Os 2YZ<t  
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[A]running short           [B]running out H)T# R?  
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[C]running the gauntlet       [D]running ahead AJlIA[Kt:  
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Part Two : Reading Comprehension 2mU-LQ1WN  
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Ⅰ. Each of the passages below is followed by some questions. For each question four answers are given. Read the passages carefully and choose the best answer to each question .Put your choice in the ANSWER SHEET.(15%) 2a(yR >#  
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Passage One xKLcd+hCZ  
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It was a normal day in the life of the American Red Cross in Greater New York .First, part of a building on West 140th Street ,in Harlem, fell down .Beds tumbled through the air ,people slid out of their apartments and onto the ground ,three people died ,and the Red Cross was there ,helping shocked residents find temporary shelter ,and food and clothing .Then it was back downtown for that evening’s big fund – raiser ,the Eleventh Annual Red Cross Award Dinner Dance ,at the Pierre .“That’s why I have bed hair tonight ,” said Christopher Peake ,a Red Cross spokesman who had spent much of the day at the Harlen scene, in the drizzling rain .He was now in a tuxedo ,and actually his hair didn’t lood so bed ,from eight crystal chandeliers . \ NSw<.  
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Definitely not having a bad hair night was Elizabeth Dole ,the wife of Senator Robert Dole and the president of the American Red Cross. Tresident Dole has chestnut colored Republican hair ,which was softly coifed ,and she was wearing a fitted burgundy velvet evening suit(“Someone made it for me ! I love velvet !”she exclaimed ,in her enthusiastic ,Northern Carolina hostess voice )and sparkling drop earrings .Of course ,she hadn’t been standing in the rain in Harlem; she had just flown up on the three - o’ clock shuttle from Washington .Dole is extremely pretty ,with round green eyes and a full mouth and a direst personality . She tilts her head attentively when she listens .She was the recipient of the evening’s award ; previous award winners have included Alice Tully, Princess Yasmin Aga Khan ,…and ,most recently, Brooke Astor . Not esactly Asequence at the end of which you would expece to find Elizabeth Dole ,but award givers are famous for having political instincts as well as philanthropic ones . 8j+:s\  
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Surrounded by the deep – blue swags and golden draperies of the ballroom were more than thiry – five dinner tables set with grupings of candles and floral centerpieces and Royal Doulton china .American Express was there . So were Bristol – Myers Squibb; Coopers lybrand; the New York Times Company; Union Bank of Switzerland; Chemical Bank ; New York Life; …and Price Waterhouse. The actress Arlene Dahl ,with rather red hair and her bearded husband, presided over one table .Otherwise, it was a typical ,faceless, captain – of – industry fund raiser(no models ! no stars!),of which there seems to be at least one every night in New York City. It was not a society night ,but still the evening raised four hundred and thirty thousand dollars. 7- 3N  
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26.from what we read we can infer that “it was a normal day in the life of the American Red Cross in Greater New York ”means its staff _____. {L-aXe{  
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[A]deal with the fall of houses in the city every day yw Q!9 \  
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[B]are busy helping people who suffer from disasters every day W/ZahPPq  
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[C]work during the day and to have banquet in the evening every day Zj+}T  
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[D]go to Harlen ,the poorest district of New York ,every day and help people there QOh w  
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27.The fund – raiser mentioned in the passage refers to _____. i h$@:^\  
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[A]Robert Dole tp0!,ne*  
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[B]Elizabeth Dole " ,aT<lw.  
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[C]the Eleventh Annual Red Cross Award Dinner Dance Q!2iOvK  
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[D]all the business companies attending the dinner dance ),y!<\oQ  
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28.Christopher Peake’s hair didn’t look so bad because _____ . rPo\Dz  
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[A]he was wearing a handsome tuxedo +zVcOS*-  
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[B]he was wearing tulips on his suit =@1R ozt  
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[C]he was seen among flowers 1hMX(N &|  
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[D]he was sitting near flowers and in very soft light Ah"'hFY  
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29.Elizabeth Dole was _____ . m>abK@5na  
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[A]the president of the American Red Cross and acted at the Dinnre as a North Carolina hostess a$xeiy9  
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[B]a republican and wife of the president of the American Red cross  [`hE^chd  
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[C]the president of the American Red Cross and its main representative at the Annual Dinner Dance kY'<u  
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[D]born in North Carolina ,became an air – hostess and later married senator Robert Dole )O2Nlk~l&  
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30.The presence of an actress at the Dinner made the fund raising ____ . {;Y 89&*R  
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[A]less impersonal         [B]a typical fund – raising event +&7[lsD*  
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[C]less personal         [D]more business – like J8u{K.( *7  
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Passage Two tb:,Uf>E  
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For laymen ethnology is the most interesting of the biological sciences for the very reason that it concerns animals in their normal activities and therefore, if we wish, we can assess the possible dangers and advantages in our own behavioral roots. Ethnology also is interesting methodologically because it combines in new ways very scrupulous field observations with experimentation in laboratories. AfbB~LlBq  
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The field workers have had some handicaps in winning respect for themselves. For a long time they were considered as little better than amateur animal – watchers – certainly not scientists, since their facts were not gained by experimental procedures: they could not conform to the hard – and – fast rule that a problem set up and solved by one scientist must be tested by other scientists, under identical conditions and reaching identical results. Of course many situations in the lives of animals simply cannot be rehearsed and controlled in this way. The fall flocking of wild free birds can’t be , or the boming of animals over long distances, or even details of spontaneous family relationships. Sine these never can be reproduced in a laboratory, they then not worth knowing about? AW,v  
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The ethnologists who choose field work have got themselves out of this impasse by greatly refining the techniques of observing. At the start of a project all the animals to be studied are live-trapped, marked individually, and released. Motion pictures, often in color, provide permanent records of their subsequent activities. Recording of the animals’ voices by electrical sound equipment is considered essential, and the most meticulous notes are kept of all that occurs. With this material other biologists, far from the scene, later can verify the reports. Moreover, two field observers often go out together, checking each other’s observations right there in the field. +Dx1/I  
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Ethnology, the word, is derived from the Greek ethos, meaning the characteristic traits or features which distinguish a group-any particular group of people or, in biology, a group of animals such as a species. Ethnologists have the intention of studying “the whole sequence of acts which constitute an animal’s behavior.” In abridged dictionaries ethnology is sometimes defined simply as “the objective study of animal behavior,” and ethnologists do emphasize their wish to eliminate myths. ,op]-CY 5  
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31.In the first sentence, the word “laymen” means _____. O1GDugZ  
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[A]people who stand aside 8YuJ8KC  
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[B]people who are not trained as biologists NH7`5mF$  
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[C]people who are amateur biologists 21r= = H$  
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[D]people who love animals ' |&> /dyq  
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32.According to the passage, ethnology is _____. J,f/fPaf7  
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[A]a new branch of biology       [B]an old Greek science *)u?~r(F  
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[C]a pseudo-science           [D]a science for amateurs 3sH\1)Zz  
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33. “The field workers have handicaps in winning respect for themselves.” This sentence means _____. > 2#%$lX6  
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[A]ethnologists when working in the field are handicapped xq}-m!nX  
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[B]ethnologists have problems in winning recognition as scientists cJCU*(7&  
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[C]ethnologists are looked down upon when they work in the field IV'p~ t  
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[D]ethnologists meet with lots of difficulties when doing field work ;f:gX`"\  
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34.According to the explanation of the scientific rule of experiment in the passage, “hard-and-fast” means experiment procedures _____. #)o7"PW:  
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[A]are difficult and quick to follow afHaB/t{R  
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[B]must be carried out in a strict and quick way {^#2=`:)O  
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[C]must be followed strictly to avoid false and loose results aBhV3Fd[B  
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[D]bard and unreasonable for scientists to observe D8%AV; -Y  
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35.The meaning of the underlined words in “the details of spontaneous family relationships” can be expressed as _____. WNs}sNSf  
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[A]natural family relationships YuQ~AE'i  
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[B]quickly occurring family relationships "7,FXTaer  
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[C]animals acting like a natural family rv>^TR*,!  
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[D]animal family behavior that cannot be preplanned or controlled maNW{"1  
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Passage Three UG;Y^?Ppe5  
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The single greatest shift in the history of mass-communication technology occurred in the 15th century and was well described by Victor Hugo in a famous chapter of “Notre-Dame de Paris”. It was a cathedral. On all parts of the giant building, statuary and stone representations of every kind, combined with huge windows of stained glass, told the stories of the Bible and the saints, displayed the intricacies of Christian theology, adverted to the existence of highly unpleasant demonic winged creatures, referred diplomatically to the majesties of political power, and , In addition, by means of bells in bell towers, told time for the benefit of all of Paris and much of France. It was an awesome engine of communication. ~rD={&0  
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Then came the transition to something still more awesome. The new technology of mass communication was portable, could sit on your table, and was easily replicable, and was easily replicable, and yet, paradoxically, contained more information, more systematically presented, than even the largest of cathedrals. It was an awesome engine of communication. 9Q;c ,]  
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In the last ten or twenty years, we have been undergoing a more or less equivalent shift-this time to a new life as a computer-using population. The gain in portability, ease, orderliness, accuracy, reliability, and information-storage over anything achievable by pen scribbling, typewriting, and cabinet filing is recognized by all .The progress for civilization is undeniable and, plainly, irreversible. Yet, just as the book’s triumph over the cathedral divided people into two groups, one of which prospered, while the other lapsed into gloom, the computer’s triumph has also divided the human race. '?QuJFki  
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You have only to bring a computer into a room to see that some people begin at once to buzz with curiosity and excitement, sit down to conduct experiments ooh and ah at the boxes and beeps, and master the use of the computer or a new program as quickly as athletes playing a delightful new game. But how difficult it is-how grim and frightful! –for the other people, the defeated class, whose temperament does not naturally. Respond to computers. The machine whirrs and glows before them and their faces twitch. They may be splendidly educated, as measured by book-reading, yet their instincts are all wrong, and no amount of manual-studying and mouse-clicking will make them right. Computers require a sharply different set of aptitudes, and, if the aptitudes are missing, little can be done, and misery is guaranteed. 8RW&r  
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Is the computer industry aware that computers have divided mankind into two new, previously unknown classes, the computer personalities and the non-computer personalities? Yes, the industry knows this. Vast sums have been expended in order to adapt the computer to the limitations of non-computer personalities. apple’s Macintosh, with its zooming animations and pull-down menus and little pictures of file folders and watch faces and trash cans, pointed the way. Such seductions have soothed the apprehensions of a certain number of the computer-averse. This spring, the computer industry’s efforts are reaching a culmination of sorts. Microsoft Bob, designed by Mr. Gates’ wife, Melinda French, and intended to render computer technology available even to people who are openly terrified of computers. Bob’s principle is to take the several tasks of operating a computer, rename then in a folksy style, and assign to them the images of an ideal room in an ideal home, with furniture and bookshelves, and with chummy cartoon helpers (“Friends of Bob”)to guide the computer user over the rough spots, and, in that way, simulate an atmosphere that feels nothing like computers. B,WTHU[AV  
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36.According to this passage, which of the following statements is NOT TRUE? Bux [6O %  
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[A]It is because the cathedral of Notre-Dame in Paris had many bell-towers and could tell time to people that the writer regards it as an engine of mass communication. uC3:7  
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[B]From cathedrals to books to computers the technology of communication has become more convenient, reliable and fast. ao" %WX  
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[C]Every time when a new communication means triumphed over the old, it divided mankind into two groups. @|}BXQNd  
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[D]Computer industry has been trying hard to make people accept computers. [, RI-#n  
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37.The printed book is more progressive than the cathedral as a communication means, because _____. # ]?bLm<!  
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[A]it could sit on your table and did no longer tell time {66sB{P  
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[B]it was more reliable and did mot tell the stories of saints of saints and demons dy__e^qi  
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[C]it was small, yet contained more information 0MMEo~dih  
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[D]it did not flatter religious and political power 9>zcBG8f  
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38.The word “awesome” in the passage means _____. @ V08U!  
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[A]frightening           [B]causing fear and respect {rfF'@[  
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[C]amazingly new         [D]awful T{qTj6I  
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39.People who feel miserable with computers are those _____. p La[}=  
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[A]who love reading books and writing with a pen or a typewriter %*aJLn+]_R  
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[B]who possess the wrong aptitudes of disliking and fearing new things !Fo*e  
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[C]who have not been trained to use computers V.ht, ~l  
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[D]who are born with a temperament that does not respond to computers DRqZ,[!+  
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40.Melinda French designed Microsoft Bob which was to ease the misery of computer users by _____. Mb3}7@/[  
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[A]making users feel that they are not dealing with machines oH0X<'  
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[B]making the program more convenient and cartoon-like #HS]NA|e@  
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[C]adding home pictures to the program design XwV'Ha  
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[D]renaming the computer tasks in a folksy style z <mK>$  
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Ⅱ Read the following passage carefully and then paraphrase the numbered and underlined parts. (“Paraphrase” means to explain the meaning in your own English.)(15%) 6wco&7   
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Charm is the ultimate weapon, the supreme seduction, against which there are few defenses. If you’ve got it, you need almost nothing else, neither money, looks, nor pedigree. (41) It is a gift, only given to give away, and the more used the more there is. It is also a climate of behavior set for perpetual summer and controlled by taste and tact. ih?^t(i  
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Real charm is dynamic, an enveloping spell which mysteriously enslaves the senses. It is an inner, fed on reservoirs of benevolence which well up like a thermal spring. It is unconscious, often nothing but the wish to please, and cannot be turned on and off at will. M#|dIbns H  
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(42) You recognize charm by the feeling you get in its presence. You know who has it. But can you get it, too? Probably, you can’t, because it’s a quickness of spirit, an originality of touch you have to be born with. Or it’s something that grows naturally out of another quality, like the simple desire to make people happy. Certainly, charm is not a question of learning tricks, like wrinkling your nose, or having a laugh in your voice, or gaily tossing your hair out of your dancing eyes. (43) Such signs, to the nervous, are ominous warnings which may well send him streaking for cover. On the other hand, there is an antenna. A built-in awareness of others, which most people have, and which care can nourish. Sa19q.~%  
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But in a study of charm, what else does one look for? Apart from the ability to listen-rarest of all human virtues and most difficult to sustain without vagueness-apart from warmth, sensitivity, and the power to please, what else is there visible? (44) A generosity, I suppose, which makes up a test-card making it clear that you’re worth the trouble. Charm can’t withhold, but spends itself willingly on young and old alike, on the poor, the ugly, the dim, the boring, on the last fat man in the corner. (45) It reveals itself also in a sense of ease, in casual but perfect manners, and often in a physical grace which springs less from an accident of youth than from a confident serenity of mind. Any person with this is more than just a popular fellow, he is also a social healer. P0 `Mdk371  
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Part Three: Cloze Test bc , p }  
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Fill in each numbered blank in the following passage with ONE suitable the passage. Put your answers in ANSWER SHEET. (10%) fO#vF.k%  
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One way of improving one’s writing is get into the habit of keeping a record of your observations, of storing (46) _____ in a notebook or journal. You should make notes on your experiences and on your (47) _____ of everyday life so that they are preserved. It is sad (48) _____ to be able to retrieve a lost idea that seemed brilliant when it flashed across your (49) _____, or a forgotten fact that you need to make a point in an argument or to illustrate a conclusion. Vf(6!iRP@  
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The journal habit has still (50) _____ vaiue. Just (51) _____ you need to record observations-the material for writing-you need to practice putting thoughts on paper. Learning to write is more like learning to ski (52) _____ it is like studying calculus or anthropology. Practice helps you discover ways to improve. Writing down ideas for your own use forces you to examine them. Putting thoughts on paper for someone else to read (53) _____ you to evaluate not (54) _____ the content-what you say-but also the expression- (55) _____ you say it .Many writers have benefited from from this habit. jY_T/233d  
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Part Four : Proofreading xeGb?DPu  
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Directions: This part consists of a short passage. In this passage, there are altogether 20 mistakes, one in each underlined sentence or part of a sentence. You may have to change a word, add a word or just delete a word. If you change a word, cross it out with a slash (\) and write the correct word. If you add a word, write the missing word between the words (in bracket) immediately before and after it. If you delete a word, cross it out with a slash (\).Put your answers in the ANSWER SHEET. (20%)
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地下室  发表于: 2010-10-16   
meidaana
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谢谢   非常感谢
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沙发  发表于: 2007-06-08   
谢谢 有答案吗?
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